Predavatelji / Speakers – Seminar II

Predavatelji / Speakers

Dr. Frederik Polak

psihiater
član The Netherlands Drug Policy
Foundation in VOC,
Amsterdam, Nizozemska

Frederik Polak je eden izmed najbolj izkušenih in spoštovanih psihiatrov na področju drog na Nizozemskem. Kot psihiater je 13 let (1994-2003) deloval na Oddelku za droge v okviru nacionalnega programa za javno zdravje (GGD) in je avtoriteta na področju družbene in politične razprave o politiki do drog na Nizozemskem in drugod po Evropi.
Med 2009-2013 je bil predsednik ENCOD (European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies). Je član sveta The Netherlands Drug Policy Foundation (Stichting Drugsbeleid) in Association for the Repeal of Cannabisprohibition (VOC – Vereniging voor Opheffing van het Cannabisverbod).
Frederik je avtor in so-avtor številnih člankov in poročil kot so upravljanje drog s pomočjo legalizacije (Drug Management through Legalisation), reforme zakonov o drogah (Thinking About Drug Law Reform: Some Political Dynamics of Medicalization) ter kritikah nizozemske politike do drog (American Criticism of Dutch Drug Policy Unfounded).

Frederik Polak, PhD

psychiatrist
member of The Netherlands Drug Policy
Foundation and VOC,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

One of the most experienced and respected Dutch psychiatrists in the field of drug use, Frederik Polak worked as a consultant-psychiatrist at the Drug Department of the Community Health Services (GGD) for thirteen years (1994-2003) and is one of the most authoritative voices in the social and political debate on drug policy, in the Netherlands and beyond.
From 2009-2013 Frederik was president of ENCOD (European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies). He is member of  the board of The Netherlands Drug Policy Foundation (Stichting Drugsbeleid), Association for the Repeal of Cannabisprohibition (VOC – Vereniging voor Opheffing van het Cannabisverbod).
He has written and co-authored numerous articles and reports including Drugsbeheersing door Legalisatie (Drug Management through Legalisation), Thinking About Drug Law Reform: Some Political Dynamics of Medicalization, and American Criticism of Dutch Drug Policy Unfounded.

Povzetek predavanja
REGULACIJA TRGA S KONOPLJO IN USODA PROHIBICIJE DROG
Posvetili se bomo konoplji in njenem položaju na Nizozemskem in v svetu ter se osredotočili na nekaj tem, ki se tičejo tudi drugih drog, predvsem pa govorili o dejavnikih, ki bi lahko ovirali zdravstvene delavce pri optimalni uporabi konoplje v medicinske namene v vsakdanjem delu. Na splošno bo govora o problematiki sprejetja medicinske konoplje znotraj stroke v številnih državah;  tako tistih zdravstvenih delavcev, ki konopljo predpisujejo, kot tudi tistih, ki je ne.

Na svetovni skupščini o drogah UNGASS 2016 se bo prvič razpravljalo o sistemu prohibicije kot takšne – do sedaj je veljalo soglasje, da razprava o tem ni bila potrebna. Glede na katastrofalne rezultate vojne proti drogam, tudi nekateri izmed tistih, ki zagovarjajo prohibicijo, pričenjajo razumeti, da ne morejo več voditi takšne politike in se izogibati debati o regulaciji, saj bo takšen odnos le pospešil irelevantnost mednarodnih konvencij o drogah.
Tik pred marcem 2014, ko je potekal CND (Commission on Narcotic Drugs), je pisarna za droge Združenih  Narodov (UNODC) objavila nasprotujoče si izjave, ki so bile s spletnih strani odstranjene v nekaj dnevih. Zdi se, kot da so pričakovali in se pripravljali na resen napad na prohibicijo drog v času UNGASS 2016. Pobuda, ki prihaja iz Latinske Amerike, je sprejeta z več sočutja kot pa podpore s strani nekaj, večinoma evropskih držav.
Avtor prispevka meni, da smo se znašli na začetku tranzicije sveta k zelo drugačnim regulativnim sistemom na področju drog. Vedno več držav razmišlja o popolni ali delni pravni ureditvi konoplje in celo vseh drugih drogah, ki so trenutno kriminalizirane.
Kako naj reguliramo vse te droge? Objavljene so številne študije, ki pa nudijo zelo različne poglede. Kar slišimo iz Urugvaja, Kolorada in Washingtona je pogosto težko interpretirati. V ZDA obstaja težnja po preveliki regulaciji in umestitvi visokih davkov, medtem ko se komercialni sistem razvija po svoje.
Ali naj bo vsaka droga posebej regulirana? Ali je morda mogoče posamezne skupine droge razlikovati in sprejeti le splošno uredbo, ki bo veljala za vse? Kompleksnost teh vprašanj je neizogibna, zato je smiselno, da začnemo razmišljati o regulativnih sistemih na splošno. Regulacija ne more biti globalna, lahko je le nacionalna ali regionalna, rezultat sodelovanja med skupinami držav, ki so dosegle zadostno stopnjo soglasja o ciljih regulacije.

Abstract
REGULATION OF MARIJUANA MARKETS AND THE FATE OF DRUG PROHIBITION
The lecture will be mostly about cannabis and its situation in the Netherlands and globally, and focus on a few topics in which other drugs will be addressed also.
About factors that may hinder health professionals to make optimal use of medicinal cannabis in their daily work. And more generally, about the problematic adoption of medicinal cannabis in many countries by health professionals, both those who prescribe cannabis and those who don’t.
At the global drug summit UNGASS 2016 for the first time the system of prohibition itself will be discussed. The consensus was that this debate was not necessary.
In plain view of the disastrous results of the war on drugs, a few prohibitionists are starting to understand that they should no longer keep to their policy of refusing to discuss regulation, because that attitude will accelerate the irrelevantization of the international drug conventions.
Shortly before the CND took place in March 2014, the UN drug office, UNODC, published contradictory statements, some of which were retracted from the website in a few days. It seems they are expecting, and preparing for a serious attack on prohibition during UNGASS 2016. This initiative is starting in Latin America, with more sympathy than support from a few mostly European countries.
The author’s view is that we find ourselves in the beginning of the transition to a world with very different regulatory systems for drugs. A growing number of countries is contemplating complete or partial legal regulation of cannabis, and even of all presently criminalized drugs.
How must all those drugs be regulated? A number of studies have been published already, with differing views. What we hear from Uruguay, Colorado and Washington State is often difficult to interpret. In the USA there is a tendency to overregulate and install high taxes, while a commercial system is developing.
Must every drug be regulated individually? Or can groups of drugs be distinguished for which one general regulation will do? The complexity of these questions seems formidable, and I posit therefore that it makes sense to start considering regulatory systems from a general perspective. Regulation cannot be global, it can only be national, or regional, as a result of cooperation between groups of countries that achieved a sufficient degree of consensus on the objectives of the regulation.

Dr. José Carlos Bouso

klinični psiholog
direktor znanstvenih projektov pri ICEERS
Barcelona, Španija

Dr. José Carlos Bouso je klinični psiholog in je doktoriral iz farmakologije. Izvedel je klinične študije o varnosti in učinkovitosti MDMA pri zdravljenju PTSM (obvladovanje post-travmatskega stresa).  Prav tako je delal tudi nevro-psihiatrične študije o dolgoročnih učinkih drog kot so marihuana, kokain in ayahuasca, nekatere izmed njih (Salvia Divinorum in 2C-B) v okviru medkulturne raziskave v Braziliji. Je soavtor številnih znanstvenih člankov in knjižnih poglavij. Trenutno deluje kot direktor znanstvenih projektov v Fundaciji ICEERS (Mednarodni center za etnobotanično izobraževanje, raziskovanje in storitve).

José Carlos Bouso, PhD

Clinical Psychologist
Scientific Projects Director at ICEERS
Barcelona, Spain

José Carlos Bouso is a Clinical Psychologist an has a PhD in Pharmacology. He has done clinical research studying the safety and efficacy of MDMA in the treatment of PTSD. He has also done neuropsychiatric studies on the long-term effects of drugs such as cannabis, cocaine or ayahuasca, some of them in Brazil, in the context of cross-cultural research, Salvia divinorum and 2C-B. He is co-author of several scientific papers and book chapters. Now he is the Scientific Projects Director at ICEERS Foundation (International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research & Service).

Povzetek predavanja
SAMOZDRAVLJENJE S KONOPLJO
Konoplja proizvaja terapevtske učinke na podlagi delovanja v endogenem kanabionoidnem sistemu. Dokazi o medicinskih učinkih konoplje so tako danes nesporni. Kljub temu pa se morajo uporabniki medicinske konoplje v številnih državah obrniti k samozdravljenju, saj konoplja ni sprejeta kot zdravilo. V predavanju si bomo ogledali medicinske osnove terapevtskih učinkov konoplje in pregledali mednarodne raziskave, ki so preučavale bolnike, ki se samozdravijo s konopljo. Prav tako bomo spoznali družbeno-politični položaj uporabe medicinske konoplje na primeru Španije.

Abstract
SELF-MEDICATION WITH CANNABIS
Cannabis produces its therapeutic effects thanks to its action in the endogenous cannabinoid system. The evidence of the medical effects of cannabis is nowadays unquestionable. Still, in most of the countries the medical users have to turn to self-medication because marihuana is not accepted as a medicine. In this talk I will review the medical basis of the therapeutic effects of cannabis and will will review the international researches that have studied patients who self-medicate with cannabis. I will also explain the sociopolitical situation regarding medical marihuana in Spain.

Joshua Kappel, Esq.

partner pri odvetniški družbi Vicente Sederberg LCC
pomočnik direktorja Sensible Colorado
Kolorado, ZDA

Joshua Kappel, Esq., partner pri odvetniški družbi Vicente Sederberg LCC, je maja 2010 diplomiral na Univerzi v Denverju – Sturm College of Law kot eden izmed najboljših študentov svojega razreda. Med študijem je prejel dve štipendiji; Patton Boggs Public Policy Fellowship ter prejel Public Interest Law Clerkship za delo, ki ga je opravljal za organizacijo Sensible Colorado. Josh je opravljal svoje pripravništvo v okviru nacionalnega projekta  Reforme zakona o drogah pri ACLU (American Civil Rights Union) v Santa Cruzu ter zvezi Colorado Criminal Defense Bar, ki se posveča zaščiti pravic obtoženih. Pri odvetniški družbi Vicente Sederberg rutinsko svetuje pacientom, skrbnikom in podjetjem o medicinski konoplji, pridobivanju licenc, skladnosti s predpisi, splošno poslovno in transakcijsko pravo,  ter pokriva področja državne in zvezne zakonodaje. Poleg tega je Joshua trenutno pomočnik direktorja pri Sensible Colorado, kjer zagovarja pravice uporabnikov konoplje za medicinske namene. Josh je pričal na številnih javnih zaslišanjih o vprašanjih, povezanih z medicinsko konopljo ter sodeloval na številnih konferencah in panelih, prav tako pa redno piše članke o raznolikih aspektih medicinske konoplje. Njegovo delo je bilo izpostavljeno v številnih medijih – Denver Post, Colorado Spring Gazette, Kush Magazine, West Coast Leaf in Colorado Independent.

Joshua Kappel, Esq.

Partner at Vicente Sederberg LLC
Associate Director Sensible Colorado
Colorado, USA

Joshua Kappel, Esq., partner at Vicente Sederberg LLC, graduated in the top 10 percent of his class at the University of Denver Sturm College of Law in May 2010. While in law school, Josh received both the Patton Boggs Public Policy Fellowship and the Public Interest Law Clerkship to work for Sensible Colorado. Josh also interned with the National ACLU’s Drug Law Reform Project in Santa Cruz and the Colorado Criminal Defense Bar. At Vicente Sederberg, Josh routinely provides advice to patients, caregivers, and businesses about medical marijuana, licensing, regulatory compliance, general business and transactional law, and the intersection of state and federal law. In addition to his work with Vicente Sederberg, Josh is currently the Associate Director of Sensible Colorado, advocating for medical marijuana patient rights. Josh has testified at numerous public hearings on issues related to medical marijuana, sat on many panels at various conferences, and routinely writes articles about a myriad of medical marijuana issues. Josh’s work has been highlighted in the Denver Post, Colorado Springs Gazette, Westword, Kush Magazine, West Coast Leaf, and Colorado Springs Independent.

Povzetek predavanja
LEGALIZIRANA KONOPLJA: ZAČETEK KONCA PROHIBICIJE V ZDA IN DRUGOD
Na predavanju si bomo ogledali zgodovino prava o konoplji v ZDA, s kratkim poudarkom na prohibiciji, ter podrobno spoznali sodobna gibanja za legalizacijo konoplje na primeru Kolorada v ZDA ter primerjali različne modele legalizacije v Amerikah.

Abstract
LEGALIZED IT: THE BEGINNING OF THE END OF CANNABIS PROHIBITION IN THE USA AND BEYOND
This lecture discusses the legal history and future of cannabis in the United States with a brief focus on its prohibition, an in depth look on the modern movement to legalize cannabis with a focus on Colorado, USA, and a comparison of different models of legalization in the Americas.

Jorge Roque

odvetnik in aktivist na področju drog
Direktor organizacije Diferença Real
Predstavnik ENCOD
Portugalska

Jorge Roque je odvetnik, specializiran za področje človekovih pravic in aktivist na področju drog. Bivši direktor mednarodne mreže uporabnikov drog INPUD. Aktivno je sodeloval pri legalizaciji konopljinih socialnih klubov v Portugalskem parlamentu.

Jorge je sodelavec pri projektu Univerze v Rio Grande do Sul v Brazliji, oddelek za zmanjševanje škode. Je predstavnik ENCOD-a (European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies) in predavatelj o dekriminalizaciji uporabe drog na Portugalskem.

Je avtor nekaterih publikacij (Legalizacija konoplje: Zakonodaja v nastajanju na Portugalskem, Resnica o dekriminalizaciji).

Jorge Roque

Lawyer and Drugs Reform activist
Director of Diferença Real
ENCOD representative
Portugal

Jorge Roque is a lawyer specialised in Human Rights and Drug Reform activist. Former Director of INPUD (International Network of People who Use Drugs) and President of NGO Diferença Real.

He has been actively involved in project of Cannabis Social Clubs Approval in Portuguese Parliament and is collaborator of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil- Harm Reduction Department. ENCOD (European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies) SC representative and world promoter of Portuguese Drug Use Decriminalization.

Author of several publications (Marijuana Legalization: Legislation in the Works in Portugal, The truth of Decriminalization).

Povzetek predavanja
PRIHODNOST VOJNE PROTI DROGAM
Prihodnost vojne proti drogam si bomo ogledali skozi naslednje perspektive: prohibicija in regulacija, konopljini socialni klubi in konopljini farmacevtski laboratoriji ter pravice manjšine in pravice večine. Predavanje bo vključevalo naslednje teme:
- dekriminalizacija uporabe drog na Portugalskem
- legalizacija konopljinih socialnih klubov v Portugalskem parlamentu
- Legalizacija drog: Spoštovanje načel in pravic manjšine in večine

 

Abstract
THE FUTURE OF DRUG WAR
We will look at the future of war on drugs through the following perspectives: Prohibition vs Regulation, Cannabis Social Clubs vs Cannabis Pharma Labs, The Rights of Minorities vs The Rights of Majorities. The lecture will include:
- The Drug Use Decriminalization in Portugal
- Cannabis Social Clubs Legalization in Portugal – Parliament
- Drugs Legalization: The Respect of Principles and Rights from Minorities subjugated by the Majority

Dr. Bojan Dobovšek

izredni profesor
Fakulteta za varnostne vede
Univerza v Mariboru, Slovenija

Izredni profesor dr. Bojan Dobovšek je prodekan za raziskovalno dejavnost Fakultete za varnostne vede v Ljubljani, Univerza v Mariboru  habilitiran za področje kriminalistike. Sodelavec Univerze v Würzburgu, Inštituta za Politične vede in predava na Pravni fakulteti Univerze v Gentu, Belgija. Je avtor številnih knjig in organizator konferenc na teme s področja organizirane kriminalitete in korupcije, tako doma kot tudi v tujini.

Sodeluje v raziskavah Sveta Evrope, OECD, Transparency International, Združenih Narodov in je sodelavec skupine BKA za organizirano kriminaliteto v Nemčiji.  Predava na dodiplomskem in podiplomskem študiju na Pravni fakulteti v Sarajevu, ter sodeluje v predavanjih z drugimi Fakultetami v EU in na področju Balkana.

V letu 2009 mu je mednarodna založba Emerald za članek Mreže gospodarskega kriminala v državah v tranziciji, podelila prinanje za najbolj priporočen članek.

Bojan Dobovšek, PhD

Associate Professor
Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security
University of Maribor

Bojan Dobovšek, Ph. D., Associate Professor of Criminal Investigation, is a Vice Dean at the Faculty of Criminal Justice, University of Maribor, Slovenia. He was a member of Commission for the Prevention of Corruption as representative of Judiciary branch of power.

He is the author of books and articles on organised crime and corruption. Ongoing research projects: Corruption and Rule of Law; Informal networks and State capture; Art crime; Organised crime and Informal economy; Crime and Tourism; Investigating Ecological crime.

He is a partner of Institute fur Politikwissenschaft und Socialforschunf, University of Wurzburg, Germany and visiting professor on Faculties in Ghent, Sarajevo, Belgrade and Zagreb.

Povzetek predavanja
TRENDI ZAKONODAJ NA PODROČJU DROG NA BALKANSKI POTI DROGE
Zakonodaja in politika do drog se kreira v državnih institucijah, vendar je pri vprašanjih, povezanih z drogo, zelo pomembna vloga nevladnih organizacij. Prispevek povzema ugotovitve pregleda in trenutnega stanja v zvezi z zakonodajo, povezano z drogami v državah v regiji. Namen prispevka je predstaviti tiste ugotovitve, ki so skupne v celotni regiji in je njihova uporabnost preizkušena v praksi. Kljub razlikam na nacionalni ravni obstajajo skupne značilnosti pri razvoju in trendih v zakonodaji na področju drog na Balkanski poti. Socialna in politična klima je ključni dejavnik, ki vpliva na hitrost zakonodajnih reform in izvajanje potrebnih ukrepov. V prispevku se bomo osredotočili na problematiko konoplje kot vstopne droge na poti odvisnosti od drog. Zato bomo izpostavili ideje in predloge, ki so jih povzeli nekateri strokovnjaki iz držav na Balkanski poti.

 

Abstract
TRENDS IN DRUG LAWS ON BALKAN DRUG ROUTE
Legislation and drug policy is created in state institutions, but on issues related to the drugs also non-governmental organizations play a very important role. This article summarizes the findings of the review and the current situation regarding legislation in the countries of the Balkan region. The purpose of this lecture is to present those findings that are common throughout the region and have proven usefulness in practice. Despite the differences at the national level, there are common features in the development and trends in the law on drugs in the Balkan route. Social and political climate is a key factor that affects the speed of legislative reforms and the implementation of necessary measures. In this article we will focus on the issue of cannabis as a gateway drug on the road of drug addiction. Therefore, we will emphasize ideas and suggestions, which have been taken up by some experts from countries on the Balkan route.

Mag. Dušan Nolimal

Nacionalni inštitut za javno zdravje
Predstavnik Slovenije v skupini Pompidou
pri Svetu Evrope
Nacionalni koordinator za področje drog pri WHO

Dušan Nolimal je zdravnik in specialist socialne medicine z organizacijo zdravstvenega varstva (javnega zdravja). Subspecializiral je iz področja epidemiologije in raziskovanja prepovedanih drog v Denverju, Kolorado, ZDA na University of Colorado School of Medicine ter Nacionalnem inštitutu za droge (NIDA), v Baltimorju, Maryland, ZDA.
Je priznan predavatelj iz področja epidemiologije in preprečevanja bolezni odvisnosti ter krepitve psihosocialnega zdravja.

 

Dušan Nolimal, MD, MSPH

National Institute of Public Health
Representative of Slovenia at the Pompidou group, Council of Europe
National Coordinator for drugs in the WHO

Dušan Nolimal is a doctor and specialist in social medicine and the organization of health care (public health care system).
Specialised in the field of epidemiology and research on illicit drugs in Denver, Colorado, USA at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and the National Institute on Drugs (NIDA), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Is recognized lecturer in the field of epidemiology and prevention of substance abuse and strengthening psychosocial health.

Povzetek uvodnega predavanja
POVEZOVANJE RAZISKOVANJA V JAVNEM ZDRAVJU S POLITIKO IN PRAKSO: KAKO PREMAKNITI SLOVENSKO URADNO POLITIKO DO KONOPLJE Z MRTVE TOČKE
Uporaba konoplje je v zadnjih letih postala tema številnih razprav v strokovnih in laičnih krogih v Sloveniji in tujini. Vendar ta pojav zaradi številnih in zapletenih povezav z vrednotami in stališči, mnoge avtorje čustveno tako obremeni, da se ga le malokdo loteva brez predsodkov, kar se kaže že pri zbiranju dejstev. Konoplja tudi ni standardizirano blago. Delež THC-ja in drugih kanabinoidov v njej  lahko zelo variira, zato je oteženo primerjanje posameznih raziskovalnih izsledkov. Beležimo mešanje statističnih vzročnih in korelacijskih zvez, kar je razvidno iz neprepričljivosti »vstopne teorije« (raba konoplje naj bi eskalirala v rabi nevarnejših drog). Zato ni čudno, da  mnenjske raziskave kažejo, da je konoplja rastlina / substanca , v zvezi s katero je javno mnenje še vedno zelo polarizirano. Tudi poročanje v medijih  pogosto polno nepreverjenih in tendencioznih informacij, da bi zagovorniki prohibicije konoplje ter njeni nasprotniki pridobili čim več podpornikov. Zanesljive informacije pa so bistvene za ustrezno odzivanje, saj omogočajo večjo učinkovitost ukrepov, če se seveda uporabljajo. Glede na raziskavo NIJZ v 2011/12 je vsaj enkrat v življenju je rekreativno konopljo poskusilo 15,8 % prebivalcev v starosti od 15-64 let; v zadnjem letu 4,5 % in v zadnjem mesecu 2,3% ali 32.141 prebivalcev Slovenije. Smrtnih predoziranj v zvezi z rabo konoplje ne poznamo. 64 %  javnosti ne podpira popolne legalizacije konoplje, zlasti ne v rekreacijske namene. Verjetno pa velik del podpira z dokazi podprto reformo politike do konoplje v medicinske namene. Zaradi zastarelih mednarodnih Konvencij oz Uredbe, ki ureja razvrstitev prepovedanih drog, predsodkov, prepričanj in tudi (komercialnih) interesov slovenska zakonodaja in politika do konoplje pomanjkljivo z dokazi podprta ter premalo življenjska, empatična in humana. Zato je cilj pristopov povezovanja raziskovanja v javnem zdravju s politiko in prakso tudi izboljšati z dokazi podprto pripravo zakonodaje in politik do konoplje. Pri tem se Nacionalni inštitut za javno zdravje ( NIJZ) povezujejo tako z oblikovalci politike na ministrstvih , kot nevladnimi organizacijami in civilno iniciativo. Dejstvo pa je, da tudi mednarodna znanstvena skupnost ni dosegla konsenza glede razumevanja stopnje škodljivosti konoplje in učinkovitosti različnih ukrepov.. Konoplja ni neškodljiva substanca, vendar so bile njene nevarnosti precenjene, zato so tudi pri nas obstoječe pravne, socialne in zdravstvene politike v nesorazmerju s posledicami individualne in družbene škode. K temu je veliko prispevale Konvencije ZN, ki so odgovorne za razvrstitev konoplje med najbolj nevarne droge, ki potrebujejo strog mednarodni in nacionalni nadzor. S tem v zvezi se problematika reševanja drog vse bolj zapleta,  velika škoda njene prohibicije, pa  zbuja skrb za javno zdravje in blagor. Splošno število kršitev zakona, povezanih s posedovanjem in uporabo konoplje, se že skoraj desetletje stalno povečuje.  Vendar zakonodaja glede konoplje v Evropi ni homogena. V državah , ki z uvajanjem dekriminalizacije in bolj življenjske , a stroge, zakonske regulacije konoplje mehčajo prohibicijo in hkrati zmanjšujejo nereguliran črni trg s konopljo, beležimo spodbudne trende tudi na področju varnosti in zdravja. Povsod je prisotna potreba po boljši in strožji regulaciji tako črnega trga s konopljo, kot legalnega trga s tobakom in alkoholom, kar ne bomo dosegli s krepitvijo represije.
Izpostaviti kaže tudi mnenje/pobudo bolnikov in civilne družbe  glede vloge medicine pri legalizaciji „medicinske konoplje“ v Sloveniji: Zdravniki  naj spoštujejo želje bolnikov, četudi so le te včasih v nasprotju s tem, kar sami smatrajo, da je za bolnika najbolje. Bolniki pričakujejo, da bodo zdravniške organizacije  in pristojno ministrstvo kot zagovorniki ranljivih skupin in zdravja prevzeli  odločilnejšo vlogo pri zmanjševanju škodljivih posledic prohibicije konoplje.

S ciljem, da bi v RS premaknili uradno politiko do konoplje z mrtve točke, bi kazalo storiti naslednje korake:
- organizirati multidisciplinarni posvet pristojnih vladnih in nevladnih organizacij o regulaciji konoplje v RS v medicinske, rekreativne in industrijske namene (Vlada RS in pristojna ministrstva);
- Popraviti uredbo o razvrstitvi prepovedanih drog : nemudno premestiti konopljo iz I. skupine v III. skupino , da bo zagotovljen neoviran dostop do “medicinske konoplje” (MZ);
- opraviti  strokovni nadzor  nad delom policije in sodstva na področju drog, vklučno z analizo podatkov o prekrših in kaznivih dejanjih na področju konoplje za zadnjih 10 let ter predlagati ukrepe za zmanjševanje  škode prohibicije konoplje, vključno z revizijo vseh primerov neupravičenih kaznovanj uporabnikov konoplje v Republiki Sloveniji (NIJZ, MNZ, MP in druga pristojna  ministrstva).

Abstract
LINKING RESEARCH IN PUBLIC HEALTH WITH POLICY AND PRACTICE: MOVING SLOVENIAN OFFICIAL POLICY TOWARD CANNABIS FROM DEADLOCK
In recent years, the use of Cannabis has become a much debated topic in professional and laic circles, in Slovenia and abroad. However, this phenomenon is due to numerous and complex links with values ​​and views, which only a few authors tackle without prejudice, and is also reflected in the collection of facts. Cannabis is not a standardized commodity. The proportion of THC and other Cannabinoids in Cannabis can vary greatly, so it is difficult to compare individual research results.
We have recorded a mix of statistical correlation and causal relationships, which is evident from the unconvincing ‘entry theory’ (use of Cannabis should lead to use of more dangerous drugs). It is of no wonder that polls suggest that Cannabis is a plant/substance which continues to polarize public opinion. Media coverage is full of unverified and tendentious information, so that the proponents of prohibition of Cannabis and its opponents gain supporters on their side. Reliable information is essential for an adequate response, enabling greater efficiency of measures, if used.
According to a National Institute of Public Health (NIJZ) survey from 2011/12, 15.8% of the population aged  15-64 have used Cannabis recreationally at least once in their life; 4.5% in the past year, and 2.3% (or 32,141 residents) of Slovenia have used Cannabis in the last month. We do not know any cases of overdose leading to death. 64% of the public does not support the full legalization of Cannabis, especially for recreational purposes, although a large part supports evidence-based reform of Cannabis Policy for medical purposes. Due to outdated international conventions and regulations governing the classification of illicit drugs, prejudices, beliefs and (commercial) interests, Slovenian legislation and policy towards Cannabis is lacking adequate evidence-based support and has little to do with life, empathy and humanity.
The aim of linking research in public health with policy and practice is to improve evidence-based legislation and policies towards Cannabis. In this context, the National Institute of Public Health (NIJZ) cooperates with both policy-makers in ministries and NGO’s and civil initiative. The fact is that the international scientific community has not reached a consensus on the understanding of the degree of harmfulness of Cannabis and effectiveness of different measures.
Cannabis is not a harmless substance but its dangers have been overstated, and our existing legal, social and health policies are disproportionate to the effects of individual and social damage. UN Conventions are a major contributor, responsible for the classification of Cannabis among the most dangerous drugs that require strict international and national control. In this context, the problem of solving drug related issues is getting more and more complex; extensive damage caused by its prohibition, however, raises concerns for public health and well-being.
The overall number of violations of the law related to possession and use of Cannabis has been increasing steadily for almost a decade. However, legislation regarding Cannabis in Europe is not homogeneous. Countries introducing decriminalization along with strict legal regulation of Cannabis are both softening and simultaneously reducing the unregulated black market and recording encouraging trends in the field of safety and health. There is a need everywhere for better and stricter regulation of both the Cannabis black market and the legal tobacco and alcohol trade, which will never be achieved by strengthening the repression.
It is also important to highlight opinions/initiative of patients and civil society regarding their role in legalization of medical Cannabis in Slovenia: doctors should respect patients’ wishes, even if they are sometimes contrary to what they consider is best for the patient. Patients expect from medical organizations and competent ministry to advocate for vulnerable groups and health in general and take a more decisive role in reducing harmful effects of Cannabis prohibition.

With the aim to move the Slovene official policy toward Cannabis from deadlock, it would be advisable to consider the following steps:
- organization of multidisciplinary consultation of the competent governmental and non-governmental organizations about regulation of Cannabis for medical, recreational and industrial purposes (government and relevant ministries);
- fix regulatory classification of illicit drugs: instantaneous transfer of Cannabis from Group I to Group III and provide access to “medical cannabis” (Ministry of Health);
- carry out professional supervision of police and judiciary work in the field of drugs, including analysis of data on criminal charges and felonies in the field of Cannabis for the last decade and propose measures to reduce the harms of Cannabis prohibition, including revision of all unjustified sanctions of Cannabis users in the Republic of Slovenia (National Institute for Public Health, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Justice and other relevant ministries).

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